Up to five years old, children tend to have an early motor development. They begin to walk very early and are described by parents as restless children, "driven by a machine".
During school age, these children begin to have learning disabilities in reading and writing, which often leads to school failures. These failures become more acute the more the child is required without providing adequate treatment. In this stage is when ADHD cases are detected the most.
In adolescence, substantial changes occur. Hyperactivity usually decreases markedly until it becomes a subjective sensation of restlessness. Even so, more than 80% of young people with ADHD still have attention problems and impulsivity.
Approximately 75% of cases with this disorder have a genetic origin. However, determining this origin is complicated since the pathology is not caused by a single gene and these genes also interact with each other. There are many involved, mainly those that regulate the systems of dopamine, adrenaline and serotonin.
Predominantly inattentive presentation: these children have difficulty organizing or completing a task, paying attention to details or following sequenced instructions. They are easily distracted or forget details of daily routines.
Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive presentation: these children show motor distress and significant impulsivity. They are impatient, talk a lot and can not be quiet for a long time.
Combined presentation: these children experience difficulties in the control of impulsivity and attentional control. They present symptoms of the two previous types.
Diagnosis of ADHD must be made by a specialist physician and evidence of the fundamental signs of the syndrome is required.
The current severity of ADHD should also be specified:
It seems that ADHD is characterized by a hypoactivation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and a reduction of functional connectivity through precuneus-default mode network and ventromedial prefrontal cortex.
This profile can help the specialist in the differential, evolution and supervision of the pharmacological guideline.
Symptoms Attention Deficit: It must present six or more symptoms during at least six months in a level of adaptation inconsistent with the level of development of the child.
Symptoms of hyperactivity and Impulsivity, at least for six months there are 6 of the following symptoms:
Hyperactivity: uneasiness, it stands up continuously when it should be sitting, acts as if "was moved by a engine", goes from one place to another in situations where it should be calm.
Impulsivity: it does not wait for turns, interrupts and annoys other colleagues, talks excessively, answers the questions before being formulated.
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